Global Biobank Meta-analysis Initiative: Powering genetic discovery across human disease
The Global Biobank Meta-analysis Initiative is a collaborative network of 23 biobanks, representing more than 2.2M consented participants with genetic data linked to electronic health records. This collaborative effort will improve genome-wide association studies’ power for diseases, benefit understudied diseases, and improve risk prediction.
Harnessing the power of data linkage to enrich the cancer research ecosystem in Canada
This abstract discusses a project aimed at linking cancer registry and administrative health data to Canada’s largest population health study, the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (CanPath). The project seeks to enrich the cancer research ecosystem in Canada by providing researchers with a comprehensive dataset that includes genetics, environment, lifestyle, and behaviour data. The linked data will be made available through a cloud-based solution called the CanPath Data Safe Haven, which is accessible to researchers through secure access. The project will address concerns related to the accessibility of cancer data in Canada, bring more value to existing data, and support an enhanced understanding of the impacts of cancer on marginalized populations.
Cohort Profile: The Ontario Health Study (OHS)
OHS’s cohort profile outlines its research platform’s history and value for the broader scientific community. OHS follows 225,000 over their lifetime, actively and passively, making de-identified genomic, environmental, lifestyle, and electronic health data available to cancer and chronic disease researchers.
Evaluation of Adiposity and Cognitive Function in Adults
Researchers sought to undercover the association between adipose tissue (amount and distribution) and cognitive scores. Using data from 9,189 participants, they found that higher visceral adipose tissue and body fat percentage correlated with increased vascular brain injuries and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as lower cognitive scores.
A functionally impaired missense variant identified in French Canadian families implicates FANCI as a candidate ovarian cancer-predisposing gene
Researchers sought to describe how new genes might be associated with ovarian cancer risk amongst 5,249 CARTaGENE participants. They found that a FANCI gene mutation is more common in familial ovarian cancer patients.
Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control
This study assessed whether cardiovascular and renal risk factors combined with the age of onset and duration of diabetes are sufficient predictors of type 2 diabetes. Of the 21,702 participants, 488 participants with type 2 diabetes originated from CanPath. The researchers developed a prediction model to help identify high-risk individuals who could benefit from therapies and treatments.
Normal sex and age-specific parameters in a multi-ethnic population: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds cohort
Researchers sought to create a robust, reference value set for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters, and understand their relationship with age and sex in people without cardiovascular disease (CVD) history or risk factors. They were able to uncover a significant influence of sex and age on these parameters for use in clinical evaluations of CVD.
Diabetes, Brain Infarcts, Cognition and Small Vessels in the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds Study
The CAHHM study collected brain and carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two cognitive tests (DSST and MoCA) in a cross-sectional sample of 7,733 men and women. It was concluded that small vessel disease characterizes much of the relationship between diabetes and vascular brain injury. However, additional factors are required to disentangle the relationship between diabetes and cognitive impairment.
Long-term exposure to a mixture of industrial SO 2, NO 2, and PM 2.5 and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity
The research team looked at exposures to SO2, NO2, and fine particles matter on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, a characteristic biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It was found that there was a positive correlation between ACPA and industrial emissions of PM2.5 and SO2.
Industrial air emissions, and proximity to major industrial emitters, are associated with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies
They assessed the relationships between PM25, SO2, and ACPA which is a marker for RA, they found there was a positive association between ACPA and industrial PM2.5/SO2 emissions. Finally there was a correlation between air pollution from industrial emissions and ACPA suggests a role for these exposures in RA.